"What must we impart to our children and students so that they are successful problem solvers?"
In my opinion, Lego is the cheapest system for engineering and problem solving. As much as the price of the box sets seem high, the variety of outcomes is the highest with lego. Other systems, like littleBits, are very costly and have limitations, such as, needing addtional materials and equipment to successfully design and develop with them. Even mBots need the addition of a computer or tablet to fully explore their potential. Lego is different. It has a huge library of parts and you don't need to bring anything else in if you don't want to.
"So, what's on this continuum?", you might ask. At first, I was very adamant.
Lego -->littlebits --> scratch -->arduino...
But I don't that it can be seen as linear model. There is nothing linear. It needs to be seen as continuous process. From problem to solution and back. Along the way, who ever embarks on the journey needs to utilize what they are familiar with at the beginning and then go after the unknown. Which then leads me to the question, "What must we impart to our children and students so that they are successful problem solvers?"
I'm currently stuck there today.